• Therapeutic alliance is made up of rapport or bond, goals, and tasks.• Therapists need to discover if expressed goals may have underlying objectives.• Telephone contact practices convey therapist availability.• First contact should go beyond information and data gathering.• Empathy is made up of cognitive empathy, affective empathy, and communication skills or communication empathy.• Implicit memory from child-caregiver relationships affects relationships because of emotional self-regulation problems.• Verbal Response Modes (VRM) vary in the degree of rapport building.• Selective silence builds rapport.• Non-verbal behaviors (particularly, certain facial expressions if genuine) affect rapport.• Appropriate self-disclosure, personal relationship, and humor build rapport.
Goals - desired changes in client behaviorTasks - the process of therapy, i.e. strategies or methods of therapy to achieve goals
"We fight too much," may have underlying issues and resultant needs or goals about respect, or power and control, or resolution of roles and boundaries."He doesn't talk to me," may about loss intimacy and attachment goals, or about gender differences or family-of-origin models that need to be examined and adapted."I don't know if I want to be in this relationship anymore," may to serve the goal of one partner to get the other re-connected in the relationship.
repeating same or virtually same words;paraphrasing words of other, whether same topic, subject, or person;words of agreement (e.g. 'Right' 'That's right'!'Yes'! 'Uh huh'! 'That's it');completion of other's sense, even if interrupting;inferred sense from other's words;description of other's state, e.g. 'As I look at you now I can see you are tense and anxious about this'
1. Counselors should be respectful of the uniqueness and individuality of African American college students...2. Counselors, counselor educators, and African American college students must be comfortable with the use of humor as a counseling technique…3. Counselors should earn the right to use humor. It is important that there is rapport between the counselor and the African American student client before introducing humor as a counseling intervention…4. It is important for counselors to rely on instinct to guide the use of appropriate humor…5. The intended purpose for the use of humor should be clearly defined…6. Mutual trust and respect should be apparent before using humor as a counseling tool…7. Finally, culturally sensitive counselors should work to ensure that the African American college student is open to the use of humor prior to its use.