1. Individuals with challenging behaviors that are however relatively simple and benign to deal with (low potential for aggression and/or violence),2. Individuals with more problematic transitory or episodic and/or more intense behaviors (moderate potential for aggression and/or violence),3. And individuals with high potential for aggression and/or violence.
1. Self-Righteousness Attitude2. Entitlement3. Ego-syntonic Perception4. Intense Emotional Arousal5. Resentment6. Characterlogical Nature7. Isolation/Avoidance Behavior8. Lack of Remorse
a) Are there any aspects of paranoid personality disorder or other paranoid thinking? This can also be from paranoid schizophrenia or stimulant drug abuse (cocaine, crack, crank, methampethamine).
b) Is there a long held resentment and self-righteousness for past wrongs done to him? Or, is the upset or anger transitory? Intense feelings that are released through cathartic processes are less likely to erupt into violence.
c) Does he/she have mechanisms to self-soothe distress or other negative emotions (other than with drugs and alcohol or other dysfunctional behavior)? Does he/she activate them effectively or readily? Individuals, who can self-soothe to any significant degree, are more likely to keep bitterness and resentment under the threshold that ignites destructive behavior.
d) Is there any underlying Asperger's disorder (high functioning autism) that may be indicative of missing social cues? Does Jim give appropriate non-verbal social cues in the therapeutic interaction? Not only do many individuals in the autistic spectrum not recognize social cues, they may also not give appropriate social cues.
e) Does he/she present as "odd"? Mismatch between emotional content and non-verbal cues (eye contact, facial expressions, body movements, voice tone, etc.) may indicate autistic issues, or may indicate disconnection due to intense uncomfortable emotions. In addition, any individual perceived as different is more prone to being targeted for victimization by bullies.
f) Is his or her presentation that of a “normal neurotic?” “Normal neurotics” may have an intense presentation at the high or low end of the normal spectrum of emotions. However, they tend to be available to processing their emotions in therapy.
g) What is the energy of the graphic novel for Jim? The writing Jim is doing may be cathartic and serves to mollify his resentment. It may keep him from possibly exploding violently into reality.
h) How does Jim feel about his recognition? Does he feel the recognition is deserved? Appreciation is the normal reaction to recognition. High fragile self-esteem or entitlement would be characteristic of narcissist individuals. Failure to get recognition can result in narcissistic rage and transitory aggression.
i) Does Jim feel that despite the awards that others still don't understand or value him? That he has gotten recognition and awards from others from his work would seem indicative of gaining positive social validation. Thus, he would be less likely to be dangerous. If he thought that the recognition and awards come from stupid people that he feels superior to... that getting the awards are just signs of their ignorance, stupidity, perverted values, that he's fooling them, then there should be more concern.
j) Does he/she feel understood by anyone? By the therapist? Individuals often seek validation from their therapist, after many life experiences of invalidation. They normally appreciate and respond positively to the validation. If the client cannot feel understood or appreciated, or dismisses validation, it would be of concern.
k) Does he/she feel that he can be understood by anyone? Who? Cho felt he understood the Columbine killers. Cho identified with the Columbine killers. Determine with whom the client identifies. Who he/she understands. Are they positive models or dangerous models?
l) How does he/she see his or her own anger and what does he/she do with it or in reaction to it? Even when many individuals feel their anger is justifiable, they also understand it can be dysfunctional for them. Of greater alarm, is when an individual sees the anger and the aggressive behavior that harms others is justified.
m) What is the ending of the novel? Is there personal redemption or just vengeance? Does the protagonist die (is doomed) or move on to "happily ever after?" Does the character have hope? Is it a transformative process for the character? For example, from doing poorly to doing well, from being alone to having positive relationships? A transformative story can be a self-prophecy of hope as opposed to a story of doom.n) What generation is Jim? Foreign-born, first American-born with immigrant parents, second generation, or third generation or beyond? The less Americanized or closer to immigration generationally, the more likely an individual may have difficulty fitting in.o) What are his or her parents like? This is a basic psychodynamic exploration- an examination of the family-of-origin, attachment relationships, validation, nurturing, etc.p) Does he/she feel rejected now? Are these feelings transitory or ongoing? Transitory feelings come and go and are not as likely to cause destructive behavior, unless he/she is highly impulsive.q) Was he/she referred or mandated to therapy? Is he/she self-referred? Self-referral is an act of hope and less likely to be indicative of desperation, and thus he/she is probably less likely to be dangerous.r) Are there economic class issues that may also apply? Class is an often forgotten discriminatory issue.s) How does Jim identify? As American? As Korean? Internalized self-hatred can have ethnic or cultural origins. Internalized self-hatred can externalize into aggression against others.t) Does he/she identify as normal? As special? As different? Misunderstood, etc.? How does he/she identify relative to others, such as victim to bully, or superior to inferior? The role dynamics can predict behavior at or to others.u) Sandra could ask Jim directly about the shooter at Virginia Tech. How much does he empathize and/or identify with Cho? Empathy might be indicative of understanding Cho’s pain, while identification may be indicative of seeing himself in that role.