*from Infants, Toddlers, and Caregivers (1989), by Janet Gonzalez-Mena & Dianne Widmeyer Eyer, Mayfield Publishing Company, 1240 Villa St., Mountain View, CA 94041.
*from Responding to Infants- The Infant Activity Manual (1983) by Inez D. Moyer, T.S. Denison and Company, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota.
• separate noisy areas from quiet areas;• clearly define areas using shelves, tables, or tape;• display at accessible height;• help children see what choices are available and how materials are to be used;• place logically (art near water);• all areas visible to adults;• incorporate traffic patterns that keeps children from interrupting each other.
• running- too much open space,• fighting over toys- not enough duplicate toys,• wandering- too cluttered, choices not clear, not enough to do,• easily distracted- areas undefined/not closed off enough,
• Interactions and questioning techniques- avoid yes/no questions.• Describing what child is doing (Providing language).• Asking child to describe what he/she is doing. Asking questions that invite children to examine their own work and look for new possibilities (focusing and extending)• Asking questions that encourage children to put together their information in orderto arrive at an answer (higher order thinking).• Asking questions that help children look for many possible ideas or solutions to problems (alternative thinking).• Asking questions that encourage child to explore their feelings and emotions (encouraging self-awareness & validating feelings).
• Adding new materials, equipment, and props,• Asking questions, offering suggestions, answering questions, bring in outside resources, field trips.
• active and quiet times,• large, small group and individual time (in preschool situations),• indoor and outdoor time,• child-initiated activities and materials and adult directed stuff.• Also, arrival & departure, meals & snacks, sleep/rest time, self-help time, clean-up, and transitions.
3 stages of dramatic play:
• Imitative Role Play (1yr)- like real people they know- using real props;• Make-Believe Play using imagination using symbolic props- inventive actions and situations (fears and worries);• Socio-Dramatic Play (3-4yr)- includes elements of two previous stages but requires verbal interaction btwn two or more children- requires a planning of roles, complex plots, and more time.
3 functional categories:
• Self-correcting toys which fit together in a specific way.• Open-ended toys which have not right or wrong solution;• Collectibles are like open-ended toys but are composed of sets of like objects.
2 stages of play:
• exploration where use all senses to become familiar with a toy; followed by• experimentation which is the actual use of the object- test to see how it works and how many ways it works.
4 stages of drawing and painting (from 18 months to six years): disordered scribbling, controlled scribbling, naming a picture that was not planned, and representational drawing.
3 stages of sand and water play: sensory motor exploration; planned and experimental play; greater complexity, drama, imagination (more cooperative).
• gain information & adjust to new experiences,• learn to deal with difficult events, acquire specific knowledge,• become familiar with different kinds of literature,• learn about social responsibilities,• learn new ideas,• expand imagination and creativity,• have their life experiences reinforced,• understand their feelings, fears, and problems are not unique to them,• feel good about themselves.
2 stages of library use: exploration and experimentation.
5 stages of book use:
• exploration, playing at reading, and having books read to them;• understanding sequencing of stories (beginning, middle, end)- details important;• learn to relate stories to pictures and words- gaining more awareness of written words as symbols for ideas and thoughts;• matching words to printed text; focus on text and meaning of words - begin sight word recognition.
2 stages of outdoor play: exploration and experimentation.