Securely attached individuals have better adjustment and higher levels of satisfaction in their adult relationships. With experiences of greater intimacy and trust, securely attached individuals tend to be less hypervigilant, jealous, and fearful of being abandoned.Individuals with preoccupied attachment style largely feel unworthy as a result of their life experiences. They tend to cling to partners and require constant reassurance because of their sense of deficiency.Dismissive individuals view others negatively, while holding a positive sense of self. They try to protect themselves from possible disappointment by others, who they see as beneath them through avoiding intimacy. This creates an illusion of invulnerability.Fearful avoidant individuals have both a negative self-perception and think poorly of others. They also avoid interpersonal intimacy as they anticipate rejection or betrayal by the negative others.
The first therapeutic phase is Cycle De–escalation. Step one includes assessment, which involves the creation of an alliance between couple and therapist. The core issues are uncovered and explained in attachment terms. Step two involves the negative interactional cycle, in its entirety, and is identified with the couple. Attachment insecurity and the maintenance of relational distress are accounted for by the negative interactional cycle. Step three includes the denied or unacknowledged emotions giving rise to interactional positions. In Step four, the presenting problem is reframed in terms of the interactional cycle, underlying emotions, and attachment needs.The second therapeutic phase is Changing Interactional Positions. Step five suggests that previously disowned needs and aspects of self are identified and integrated into relationship interactions. Step six involves acceptance of each partner's experience and new more flexible interactional patterns are promoted. In Step seven, expression of attachment needs and wants are facilitated, thus creating emotional engagement.The third therapeutic phase is Consolidation and Integration. Step eight addresses previous relational problems via new solutions at which the couple have arrived through the therapeutic journey. Step nine considers the couple's new positions and healthier cycles of attachment behavior. (Naaman, et al., 2005, page 63-64)
1. Injured partner expressed violation of trust.2. Injured partner articulated meaning of experience at an emotionally deepened level.3. Offending partner became less defensive.4. Grief was expressed by the injured partner, from a position of vulnerability.5. The offending partner moved forward and acknowledged responsibility for her share in the injury.6. The injured partner risked asking for the reassurance that was unexpressed at the time of the injury.7. The offending partner responded in a caring and protective way. (Naaman, et al., 2005, page 73)