A. Qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following:
(1) marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction(2) failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level(3) a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest to other people)(4) lack of social or emotional reciprocity
B. Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:
(1) encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus(2) apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals(3) stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements)(4) persistent preoccupation with parts of objects
C. The disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.D. There is no clinically significant general delay in language (e.g., single words used by age 2 years, communicative phrases used by age 3 years).E. There is no clinically significant delay in cognitive development or in the development of age-appropriate self-help skills, adaptive behavior (other than in social interaction), and curiosity about the environment in childhood.F. Criteria are not met for another specific Pervasive Developmental Disorder or Schizophrenia.
A. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction acrosscontexts, not accounted for by general developmental delays, and manifestby all 3 of the following:
1. Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity2. Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction3. Deficits in developing and maintaining relationships
B. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities as manifested by at least two of the following:
1. Stereotyped or repetitive speech, motor movements, or use of objects2. Excessive adherence to routines, ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbalbehavior, or excessive resistance to change3. Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus4. Hyper-or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspectsof environment;
C. Symptoms must be present in early childhood (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacitiesD. Symptoms together limit and impair everyday functioning.
Social impairment with extreme egocentricity, which may include:inability to interact with peers
lack of desire to interact with peerspoor appreciation of social cuessocially and emotionally inappropriate responses
Limited interests and preoccupations, including:
more rote than meaningrelatively exclusive of other interestsrepetitive adherence
Repetitive routines or rituals, that may be:
imposed on self, orimposed on others
Speech and language peculiarities, such as:
delayed early development possible but not consistently seensuperficially perfect expressive languageodd prosody, peculiar voice characteristicsimpaired comprehension including misinterpretation of literal and implied meanings
Non-verbal communication problems, such as:
limited use of gestureclumsy body language
limited or inappropriate facial expressionpeculiar "stiff" gazedifficulty adjusting physical proximity
may not be necessary part of the picture in all cases
The Mentalistic Stories
BananaKatie and Emma arc playing in the house. Emma picks up a banana from the fruit bowl and holds it up to her car. She says to Katie, "Look! This banana is a telephone!"
Is it true what Emma says?Why does Emma say this?
PicnicSarah and Tom arc going on a picnic. It is Tom's idea, he says it is going to be a lovely sunny day for a picnic. But just as they are unpacking the food, it starts to rain, and soon they are both soaked to the skin. Sarah is cross. She says, "Oh yes, a lovely day for a picnic alright!"
Is it true, what Sarah says?Why does she say this?
The Physical Stories
ArmyTwo enemy powers have been at war for a very long time. Each army has won several battles, but now the outcome could go either way. The forces are equally matched. However, the Blue army is stronger than the Yellow army in foot soldiers and artillery. But the Yellow army is stronger than the Blue army in air power. On the day of the final battle, which will decide the outcome of the war, there is a heavy fog over the mountains where the fighting is about to occur. Low-lying clouds hang above the soldiers. By the end of the day the Blue army have won.
Why did the Blue army win?
GlassesSarah is very long-sighted. She has only one pair of glasses, which she keeps losing. Today she has lost her glasses again and she needs to find them. She had them yesterday evening when she looked up the television programmes. She must have left them somewhere that she has been today. She asks Ted to find her glasses. She tells him that today she went to her regular early morning keep fit class, then to the post office, and last to the flower shop. Ted goes straight to the post office.
Why is the post office the most likely place to look?
One is the loneliest number that you'll ever doTwo can be as bad as oneIt's the loneliest number since the number one (lyrics Harry Nilsson 1969, performed by Three Dog Night)
When Brody starts talking about his magazine while Faith is talking about her magazine, Brody is to notice that she seems distressed and looks distracted- she looks away several times. Brody should ask her, "Were you finished talking about your magazine?" and then offer to listen to what she wanted to share before talking about his magazine.While talking about her article, Faith notices that Brody seems a bit excited and is handling his magazine. Faith says, "Let me tell you about my article and then, you tell me about your article. OK?" She says this while pointing at his magazine and also touching him on the arm.While telling Faith about the Great Firewall of China, Brody notices that Faith tips her head a little to the side along with a slight frown and her mouth parting her. He is to consider that she may not be understanding him and ask, "Am I making sense to you? Should I explain it differently? What don't you understand?"
1. teaching skills in a developmental, step-wise progression, where rudimentary skills form the foundation for their more sophisticated counterparts;2. initially providing instruction from more competent individuals, who act as both "guides" and "participants";3. developing simple, ritualized frameworks that allow for a degree of predictability without limiting the potential introduction of novelty and variation;4. initially working in a simple, nondistracting environment;5. spotlighting and amplifying the important actions and communication of "coaches" so that they are easier to read by the novice learner; and6. moving gradually from the therapist as guide to evenly matched partners and from simpler to more complex settings.