1. Decline. External and internal needs are not appropriately met. Warning signals about the need for radical reorganization are denied or avoided. Efforts to cope with problems by first-order change result in crisis, chaos, procrastination, efforts to go "back to basics," resistance to change, and anger. Through ever-increasing fluctuation, the system reaches a critical point beyond which the alternative is demise or revitalization.2. Transformation. This stage includes acceptance of the need for change, discontinuity from the past, commitment to change, reframing processes, creating or discovering new realities, a sudden shift in perception, a moment of illumination, insight, and the emergence of a new direction quantitatively and qualitatively different from the old one. This stage also involves a departure from the old beliefs and habits, the process of "letting go."3. Transition. This stage includes planned and managed efforts to translate ideas and visions into action steps, programs, structures, and procedures. The focus is on assessing solutions and their impact and managing the transition from an unstable state to a new stable state.4. Stabilization and development occurs when the change program is institutionalized, tuned up, maintained, and developed by first order changes. In this study the focus was on the "transformation stage" from both theoretical and practical perspectives. (page 13-14).