(a) the developmental processes by which high-EE attitudes originated,(b) the ways in which patients process and react to negative affect from parents or other caregivers,(c) the cognitive reactivity of relatives,(d) the ability of patients to manage stressful family interactions, and (e) the behaviors of patients that provoke negativity" (Miklowitz, 2007, page 194).
1. The family confronts, accurately defines, and achieves a realistic solution of its problems.2. Though unable to achieve a realistic solution, the family can nevertheless contain the problem and control the potentially noxious effects while giving itself a larger period within which to find a solution.3. Unable to find an effective solution or to contain the destructive effects of conflict, the family responds to the tension of failure with an "acting out" pattern of impulsive, ill-judged, self-defeating, harmful behavior. Sometimes the family as a group seeks a scapegoat, whether within the family or outside. In this condition the family as a family system cannot long maintain its defenses.4. With persistent failure at the presiding three levels, the family shows increasing signs of emotional disintegration, which in some circumstances may culminate in disorganization of family ties. (Hyde, 2001, page 111-12).
Mutual affection and trust in one another and the communityRespect for individual differences in perception and feelingsThe ability to communicateThe ability to accept lossClear-cut boundaries between parents and children